Application of GIS in researching biodiversity in Bac Kan province

Posted at: 08:07:29 05/07/2016 - Read: 263
Từ khóa Key words: GIS, biodiversity

Viet Nam is one of 10 countries which has the greatest biodiversity in the  world with several unique ecosystems, many varieties , many varieties, endemic species which high economic and scientific value, a lot of rare genes.

Bac Kan is a province in northeast of Viet Nam, which has large natural forest area (95,3% area). Bac Kan is quite rich in diverse forest resources. In addition to providing wood, bamboo, there are many precious animal and plant species which have high value and it's considered as a conservation center of plant species in Northeast.  The fauna of Bac Kan is valuable with several endemic and precious species. Many plants and animals are grown and fed for selling and it's bring about high economic efficiency. Therefore, protecting and preserving this genetic resource is one of the main task of Bac Kan provice.

By using GIS technology and ArcGIS software, the Geoinformatics Research Center in Thai Nguyen University of agriculture and forestry was build a habitat map for Bac Kan province. Using the habitat map to build the map of species distribution in Bac Kan. From the surveying location combine with collecting and surveying data, describes the distribution of species in the province, as following:

Figure 1: The diagram of mapping thematic biodiversity

A, Prepare

Collecting the documents related to assessment of biodiversity in the province. The report, thematic reviews, survey data and interview people in the province to assess the occurrence, distribution and extent of species in Bac Kan province. Collect and establish a database system to describe and stimulate the distribution of species in Bac Kan. The spatial data will be converted to VN_2000 coordinate system in ArcGIS software.       

Figure 2: VN_2000 coordinate system in ArcGIS

B, Mapping the thermatic maps

(1), The habitat map:

The main data for habitat mapping is the forest inventory data in Bac Kan combine with additional investigation data. Gathering the soil types which are the same habitat, then building a table of there soil types by excel, after that, drawing a map layer which show the types of habitat in Bac Kan province.

Figure 3: The habitat map of Bac Kan province

(2), The water basins map.

Bac Kan river network is relatively dense but almost is the short upstream, steep and erratic water regime. Bac Kan is the headwater of 5 maijor rivers of the Northeast area: Gam, Lo, Ky Cung, Bang and Cau river. In the research of water basins in Bac Kan province, we research these following types of species: Zooplankton, Phytoplankton, benthic and fish. To mapping water basins from the species above, we need to collect the hydrological systems data, the species in water basins, especially is the system of surveying point which was recored by GPS in research area.

Import data from GPS for surveying the diversity of water basins. Import and convert the data table of zooplankton, Phytoplankton, benthic and fish into ArcGIS software. Import and choose the coordinate system for datam we get the result:

Figure 4: The water basins map

(3), The vegetation map.

The vegetation map is a map which identify the vegetation units distributed in research area, arranged in a certain system. To determine the vegetation units, we need to classify the group of plants according to the defined standards of the plant associations. The plant associations and the species which have the same general characteristics about appearance and ecological characteristics is defined as a unit:

With the support from remote sensing, GIS technology and GPS satettile navigation, we can identify the types of flora, then we can mapping vegetation cover in Bac Kan.

The landsat image is convert to VN2000 coordinate system. Processing and analysis image according to the general method of remote sensing image processing technique. In classification method, combining the suervised and unsupervised classification. Identifying the location of surveying point by GPS machine in UTM coordinate system then convert to VN2000 coordinate system.

From the basic information of GIS database, we can build a vegetation map which have detailed attribute about number of species, dominant species, the area of vegetation types as following:

Figure 5: The vegetation map of Bac Kan province

(4), Mapping the distribution of Bird, animal, reptile and amphibians

The species or group of species are uneven distribution in any habitat types due to the behavior characteristics, adapting condition. Base on the data from fieldwork and collected data about the distribution of species in Bac Kan, we identify the GPS  location. Import data from GPS into ArcGIS then convert data to point format of ArcGIS software. Choose the symbol for species and habitat in Bac Kan province.

Next, we mapping the distribution of bird, animal, reptiles and amphibians base on the basic data and the distribution of species. Base on the habitats, we can evaluate the distribution of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians as following:

Figure 6: The distribution map of reptiles and amphibians in Bac Kan

Figure 7: The distribution map of bird in Bac Kan

Figure 8: The distribution map of animal in Bac Kan

According to the method of building thematic map, we get the result are 5 maps: The vegetation cover map, the water basin map, the distribution map of bird, animal, reptile and amphibian. These maps were mapped in ArcGIS with the scale

Posted by: GIRC

GeoInformatics Center - Thai Nguyen University of Agriculture and Forestry

Address: Quyet Thang commune, Thai Nguyen city, Vietnam | Tel: +84904.031.103

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